This note is about participation of multiple stakeholders in decisions or design.

Human Participation

Precedents for inclusion:

Nihil novi nisi commune consensu (1505 act/constitution in Poland), interpreted as "nothing about us without us" (Nihil de nobis, sine nobis)

Nonhuman Participation

Jönsson, Li. ‘Stakes at the Edge of Participation: Where Words and Things Are the Entirely Serious Title of a Problem’. Design Ecologies, no. 6 (2015): 9.

Rice, Louis. ‘Nonhumans in Participatory Design’. CoDesign 14, no. 3 (2018): 238–57.

Pettersen, Ida Nilstad, Hanne Cecilie Geirbo, and Hanne Johnsrud. ‘The Tree as Method: Co-Creating with Urban Ecosystems’. In PDC ’18: Proceedings of the 15th Participatory Design Conference, edited by Liesbeth Huybrechts, Maurizio Teli, Ann Light, Yanki Lee, Carl Di Salvo, Erik Grönvall, Anne Marie Kanstrup, and Keld Bødker, 2:1–6. Hasselt and Genk Belgium: ACM, 2018.

Bastian, Michelle, Owain Jones, Niamh Moore, and Emma Roe, eds. Participatory Research in More-than-Human Worlds. Routledge Studies in Human Geography. Abingdon: Routledge, 2017.

Key Concepts

  • voluntary participation
  • non-voluntary participation
  • unconscious participation
  • ecodemocracty What is ecodemocracy?

Co-Creation (in Ecological Economics)

Co creation is to the emergence of novelty in co-evolutionary processes where human activities interact with evolutionary dynamics (this means everywhere always?).

Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten. ‘The Art of Co-Creation: An Intervention in the Philosophy of Ecological Economics’. Ecological Economics 169 (2020): 106526.

Participation in Architecture

Jenkins, Paul, and Leslie Forsyth, eds. Architecture, Participation and Society. London: Routledge, 2010.

Sanchez, Jose. Architecture for the Commons. New York: Routledge, 2020.

Till, Jeremy. Architecture Depends. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

Participatory Design

Methods to Study Participation

On ethnographic methods for studying participation.

Hajer, Maarten A., and Hendrik Wagenaar, eds. Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

DIY (Do It Yourself)

Finn, Donovan. “DIY Urbanism: Implications for Cities.” Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability 7, no. 4 (2014): 381–98.

Do-It-Together vs Do-It-Yourself

For the background, logic and references on do-it-together and factories-of-the-future see "Do-It-Together'' and innovation, towards the Factories of the Future (FoF) (

Fauchart, Emmanuelle, Maya Bacache-Beauvallet, Marc Bourreau, and François Moreau. “Do-It-Yourself or Do-It-Together: How Digital Technologies Affect Creating Alone or with Others?” Technovation 112 (2022): 102412.

Singer, Haley, Anna Dunn, Blanche Verlie, Stephanie Lavau, and Tessa Laird, eds. “Hacking the Anthropocene: Do-It-Together (DIT).” Special issue. Feral Feminism, no. 10 (2021).

Külschbach, Andreas, Tobias Leiting, and Volker Stich. “Do-It-Together Concept for Production Ecosystems.” In Proceedings of the Conference on Production Systems and Logistics: CPSL 2020, edited by Peter Nyhuis, David Herberger, and Marco Hübner, 369–76. Hannover: Institutionelles Repositorium der Leibniz Universität Hannover, 2020.

Jarvis, Helen. “Envisioning Liveability and Do-It-Together Urban Development.” In The Routledge Handbook on Spaces of Urban Politics, edited by Kevin Ward, Andrew E. G. Jonas, Byron Miller, and David Wilson, 336–49. Abingdon: Routledge, 2018.

Human only but interesting as an example of supporting local community innovation in practice:

Kobro, Lars U. Let’s Do It Together: Handbook for Local Collaborative Social Innovation. Notodden: University of South-Eastern Norway, 2018.

Sobral, Laura. Cooperation Tools for the City Co-Governance. Berlin: A Cicade Press, 2018.