Organisms are lifecycles.

  • the organism is its life cycle
  • evolution consists of alterations of the life cycle
  • development extends beyond the body and into interactions with other organisms

Bonner, John Tyler. Size and Cycle: An Essay on the Structure of Biology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965.

Bonner, John Tyler. Life Cycles: Reflections of an Evolutionary Biologist. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Gilbert, Scott F. ‘Evolutionary Transitions Revisited: Holobiont Evo-Devo’. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 332, no. 8 (2019): 307–14.