Related to

For any complex system to behave as a purposeful whole, there needs to be effective communication between both the different components of the system and with the outside environment.

Modules that enact communication are signalling pathways.

For example:

  • hormones such as the insulin that regulates your blood sugar.

Signalling pathways transmit information within cells, between cells, between organs, between whole organisms, between populations of organisms and between different species across whole ecosystems.

Nurse, Paul. What Is Life? Five Great Ideas in Biology. New York: W.W. Norton, 2021.

There is broad literature on communication at all biological levels.

Frohoff, Toni, and Elizabeth Oriel. ‘Conversing with Dolphins: The Holy Grail of Interspecies Communication?’ In Biocommunication: Sign-Mediated Interactions between Cells and Organisms, edited by Richard Gordon and Joseph Seckbach, 575–97. Singapore: World Scientific, 2015.

  1. Soundscape