Community Ecology



For a typology of all ecosystems, see this official proposal by IUCN:


Keith, David A., José R. Ferrer-Paris, Emily Nicholson, Melanie J. Bishop, Beth A. Polidoro, Eva Ramirez-Llodra, Mark G. Tozer, et al. ‘A Function-Based Typology for Earth’s Ecosystems’. Nature 610, no. 7932 (2022): 513–18.

For the conceptual foundation on the formation of communities from species pools, see:

Keddy, Paul A., and Daniel C. Laughlin. A Framework for Community Ecology: Species Pools, Filters and Traits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022.


How do ecosystem typologies relate to eco-cultural frameworks?