This refers to Biocommunicaiton

On the language of prairie dogs, via Ferris Fabr.

Slobodchikoff, Con N. Chasing Doctor Dolittle: Learning the Language of Animals. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2012.

Biological Evolution of Language

Pennisi, Antonino. Darwinian Biolinguistics: Theory and History of a Naturalistic Philosophy of Language and Pragmatics. New York: Springer, 2016.

Human language is a biological form of embodied species-specific intelligence based on the evolution of body structure. (and I would add behaviour, culture, situated/placed culture)


People who considered nonhuman languages

Eileen Crist Eva Meijer Chloé Mondémé

Language in Nonhuman Beings


Adamatzky, Andrew. ‘Language of Fungi Derived from Their Electrical Spiking Activity’. Royal Society Open Science 9, no. 4 (2022): 211926.

Dehshibi, Mohammad Mahdi, and Andrew Adamatzky. ‘Electrical Activity of Fungi: Spikes Detection and Complexity Analysis’. Biosystems 203 (2021): 104373.