Three dimensions of scale:

  • space
  • time
  • organisational level

The challenge of scale can be seen as a challenge of a problem in ecology but the notion of scale can also provide a unifying framework.

Wu, Jianguo, and Harbin Li. ‘Concepts of Scale and Scaling’. In Scaling and Uncertainty Analysis in Ecology: Methods and Applications, edited by Jianguo Wu, 3–15. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006.

Spake, Rebecca, Martha Paola Barajas-Barbosa, Shane A. Blowes, Diana E. Bowler, Corey T. Callaghan, Magda Garbowski, Stephanie D. Jurburg, et al. ‘Detecting Thresholds of Ecological Change in the Anthropocene’. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 47, no. 1 (2022): 797–821.

West, Geoffrey B. Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies. New York: Penguin Press, 2017.

Schlünzen, K. Heinke, David Grawe, Sylvia I. Bohnenstengel, Ingo Schlüter, and Ralf Koppmann. ‘Joint Modelling of Obstacle Induced and Mesoscale Changes—Current Limits and Challenges’. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 99, no. 4 (2011): 217–25.

In Management and Scenario-Making

A call to link management decisions to the "targets for nature" across scales:

Rosa, Isabel M. D., Henrique M. Pereira, Simon Ferrier, Rob Alkemade, Lilibeth A. Acosta, H. Resit Akcakaya, Eefje den Belder, et al. ‘Multiscale Scenarios for Nature Futures’. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1, no. 10 (2017): 1416–19.


Fritsch, Matthias, Heike Lischke, and Katrin M. Meyer. ‘Scaling Methods in Ecological Modelling’. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 11, no. 11 (2020): 1368–78.

  1. Organisational
  2. Spatial
  3. Temporal