This note discusses the concept of indigenous and local communities.



Indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC) include:

  • "a people descended from a population that inhabited a country at a time of its conquest or colonization by another country, currently consider themselves distinct from other (perhaps more dominant) populations in that country, and retain at least some of their original socio-economic, cultural, and/or political institutions, which they have rights to enjoy and perpetuate"

  • "a community that has long-standing historic, cultural, and/or political roots in a country and is not typically considered subservient to any other population in the country (although it might have been in the past)"

Mulalap, Clement Yow, Tekau Frere, Elise Huffer, Edvard Hviding, Kenneth Paul, Anita Smith, and Marjo K. Vierros. ‘Traditional Knowledge and the BBNJ Instrument’. Marine Policy 122 (2020): 104103.

Indigenous Ontologies

Relationships link everything in the world and the total set of relationships is the world that humans (Indigenous humans) experience as alive rather than dead or inert.

Deloria Jr, Vine, Samuel Scinta, Kristen Foehner, and Barbara Deloria. Spirit and Reason: The Vine Deloria Jr. Reader. New York: Fulcrum Publishing, 1999.

Moreton-Robinson, Aileen. ‘Incommensurable Sovereignties Indigenous Ontology Matters’. In Routledge Handbook of Critical Indigenous Studies, edited by Brendan Hokowhitu, Aileen Moreton-Robinson, Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Chris Andersen, and Steve Larkin, 257–68. London: Routledge, 2021.