Types of Systems

  • Managed (agroecosystems, planted forests, animal productions, plant production; managed ecosystems account for as much as 90% of the terrestrial environment)
  • Constructed (green roofs, sewage treatment wetlands and bioreactors)
  • Historical (pre-human, pre-colonial)
  • Novel
  • Synthetic
  • Emergent
  • Hybrid

Fields of Study

  • Restoration EcologyRestoration ecology (repair anthropogenic damage, including habitat enhancement) 1
  • Intervention ecology (similar to the above) 2
  • Conservation ecology
  • Landscape ecology


Crausbay, Shelley D., Helen R. Sofaer, Amanda E. Cravens, Brian C. Chaffin, Katherine R. Clifford, John E. Gross, Corrine N. Knapp, et al. ‘A Science Agenda to Inform Natural Resource Management Decisions in an Era of Ecological Transformation’. BioScience 72, no. 1 (2022): 71–90.


  1. Hobbs, Richard J., and Viki A. Cramer. ‘Restoration Ecology: Interventionist Approaches for Restoring and Maintaining Ecosystem Function in the Face of Rapid Environmental Change’. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33, no. 1 (2008): 39–61.˄

  2. Hobbs, Richard J., Lauren M. Hallett, Paul R. Ehrlich, and Harold A. Mooney. ‘Intervention Ecology: Applying Ecological Science in the Twenty-First Century’. BioScience 61, no. 6 (2011): 442–50.˄