Sexual Selection

Related to Aesthetics and the 'evolution of beauty'. Relevant because it can lead to maladaptive outcomes.

Prum, Richard O. The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin’s Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World - and Us. New York: Doubleday, 2017.

Sexually dimorphic traits, which sometimes appear maladaptive to survival.

Although some have questioned the very notion of sexual selection (Roughgarden et al., 2006; Roughgarden, 2015), it remains a major component of evolutionary theory (Parker and Pizzari, 2015).

Sexual selection can be very strong and can drive traits beyond their naturally selected optima (Hosken and House, 2011).

Sexual Dimorphism, by Sarah Mesnick and Katherine Ralls in the Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals

Arbitrary, negatively reinforced, or maladaptive traits may be preserved in an individual's repertoire if they increase reproductive success through sexual selection.

Heyes, Cecilia M., and Bennett G. Galef, eds. Social Learning in Animals: The Roots of Culture. San Diego: Academic Press, 1996.