The self/no-self distinction is fundamental to all life.

It likely happens at multiple levels, cf. cells, the immune system, etc.

The notion of self is relevant as an issue in Politics and as a background to Personas.

Might be a necessary precursor to self-consciousness.

Being No One with Thomas Metzinger

Metzinger, Thomas. The Ego Tunnel: The Science of the Mind and the Myth of the Self. New York: Basic Books, 2009.

Metzinger, Thomas. Being No One: The Self-Model Theory of Subjectivity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.

Minimal Self

Lupton, Deborah. The Social Worlds of the Unborn. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Emotional Self

Cf. Emotion

Lupton, Deborah. The Emotional Self: A Sociocultural Exploration. London: Sage Publications, 1998.


Papacharissi, Zizi, ed. A Networked Self and Human Augmentics, Artificial Intelligence, Sentience. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019.

Lupton, Deborah. The Quantified Self. Cambridge: Polity, 2016.